Types of Irrigation System

October 23,2021

Since water is necessary for growing food, drought conditions may cause major problems for agriculture. Therefore, farmers in drought-prone areas often face extreme poverty. In the face of climate change, efficient water use technology is very important. Thus irrigation system was born. Today we are going to deep into the different types of irrigation system.


What’s irrigation system?


rain gun sprinkler irrigation system


A irrigation system refers to provide water to land or crops to help their growth, typically by means of channels. As the name implies the pressurized water through the rain gun used to irrigate the crop. And the advantage of sprinkler irrigation is saving water.


Types of irrigation systems


As the development of irrigation system, there are so many types of irrigation systems sold on the market, with different ways to transmit water to the field. Some common types of irrigation systems include:


Surface irrigation


Surface irrigation refers to the irrigation and distribution of water on the soil surface by gravity without involving mechanical pump. It is currently the most common form of irrigation in the world and has been used in many areas for thousands of years with little change. It is usually used under favourable conditions such as regular slopes, medium to low permeability soil types, and somewhere with an adequate supply of surface or groundwater water.


Localized irrigation


Local irrigation is a system in which water is distributed in a predetermined pattern through a network of pipes at low pressure and is applied to each plant or adjacent plants as a small flow. The benefits of a localized irrigation system is that it allows the use of more saline water, and can be used effectively with low infiltration soils that cannot be sprinkler irrigated. Some disadvantages are the higher initial costs of the systems, salinity buildups, more limited root development, and higher technology requirement.


Drip irrigation


Drip irrigation involves placing tubing with emitters on the ground along side the plants. The emitters slowly drip water into the soil at the root zone. ... Allows the rows between plants to remain dry, improving access and reducing weed growth. The benefits of a drip irrigation is saving time, money, and water because the system is so efficient.


Sprinkler irrigation


Sprinkler irrigation is an irrigation water application method similar to natural rainfall. Water is distributed through a piping system, usually by pumping. Then it is sprayed into the air through a sprinkler, which decomposes into small drops and falls on the ground. And it includes mobile rain gun sprinkler irrigation system, center pivot irrigation system, solid set and permanent set irrigation system.


Center pivot irrigation


Water is distributed by a system of sprinklers that move on wheeled towers in a circular pattern. This system is common in flat areas of the United States. The central fulcrum is the most widely used irrigation system in Georgia farms. It is a self-propelled system rotating around the central pivot point. The driving mechanism of this system can be water pressure, hydraulic oil or electric motor. Most systems in use today have electric drive systems. The time required to rotate depends on the size of the system, the capacity of the pump or well, and the amount of water per application.


Lateral move irrigation


Lateral move irrigation refers to that water is distributed through a series of pipes, each with a wheel and a set of sprinklers, which can be rotated manually or by special mechanical devices. The sprinkler moves a certain distance in the field, and then the water pipe needs to be reconnected for the next distance. Such systems tend to cost less, but require more labor than other systems.




In this irrigation system, water is distributed over land through pumping stations, canals, gates and ditch systems, and by raising the groundwater level. This irrigation method is most effective in areas with high groundwater level.


Manual irrigation


Manual irrigation or artificial irrigation is by far the most common form of irrigation because anyone can irrigate their crops manually. Manual irrigation is to transport water from one plant to another. This is very labor-intensive and time-intensive and is usually done with hoses or buckets, so it is only suitable for smaller areas.




We should select right irrigation system for our farm filed which may involve a lot of factors such as the area of the farm field and types of crop and the most important factor-budget. And if you have enough budget and a broad farm field you must try sprinkler irrigation system as  a research conducted by Haq in 1990 showed that sprinkler irrigation could save more 30% water than surface irrigation system. Crop production per unit of water used in sprinkler irrigation was 4.13 kg/m3 as compared to 2.88 kg/m3 by surface irrigation. The electrical conductivity of soil remained almost the same in case of sprinkler system while in gravity system it was increased at post harvesting at 30 to 45 cm depth. Same was the case for sodium adsorption ratio (SAR). However, nitrogen contents were more in case of sprinkler than gravity system.


If you are interested in sprinkler irrigation system, or other kinds of irrigation system such as pivot irrigation system, mobile rain gun sprinkler irrigation system, please spend a few minutes visiting our website and we are looking forward to be your first choice. Jiangsu huayuan water-saving co.,ltd is a professional irrigation system wholesaler and exporter, providing all sorts of irrigation systems. Hope to see you soon.